ABSTRACT

We have investigated the impact of wave-induced fluid flow, including Biot flow and mesoscopic flow, on the signatures of seismic reflectivity in heterogeneous reservoir rocks. We have incorporated the dynamic poroelastic responses of mesoscopic flow into the classical Biot theory. The resulting effective Biot media could capture the characteristics of velocity dispersion and wave attenuation in heterogeneous poroelastic media. On the basis of this effective Biot media, an approach was developed to compute the poroelastic reflection at arbitrary angles and frequencies from the boundary of two heterogeneous porous media. The computed poroelastic reflections not only depended on the elastic properties’ contrast and incident angle, but also relied on the fluid mobility and observational frequency. For a typical sand-shale reflector, with the given rock and fluid properties, we found that the effect of mesoscopic flow causes P-wave reflection amplitude variations with the frequency being as high as 40% and a maximum phase shift as high as 16° at the seismic exploration frequency band. In addition, it was found that the amplitude variation with offset intercept and the gradient at the poroelastic interface were impacted by the mesoscopic flow and had a decreasing trend with frequency. Therefore, ignoring the impact of mesoscopic flow could possibly lead to uncertainty in seismic imaging as well as quantitative interpretation of reservoir properties. In comparison, the Biot flow-induced seismic dispersion effect, which occured at a very high-frequency range, was almost negligible.

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