By adapting reverse time migration (RTM) and demigration as the migration and modeling operators to maximize the crosscorrelation between the simulated and the acquired seismic data, we introduced a new practical least-squares RTM (LSRTM) scheme and derived a steepest descent method in seeking the optimal image. Through synthetic and real data experiments, we determined that the proposed LSRTM provided high-quality images with balanced amplitudes, improved focusing, and enhanced resolution. The method was also capable of removing free surface ghosts caused by towed streamer acquisition, filling the structures and reducing crosstalk noise associated with simultaneous shooting.

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