ABSTRACT

Time-lapse geophysical monitoring has potential as a tool for reservoir characterization, that is, for determining reservoir properties such as permeability. Onset times, the calendar times at which geophysical observations begin to deviate from their initial or background values, provide a useful basis for such characterization. We found that, in contrast to time-lapse amplitude changes, onset times were not sensitive to the exact method used to related changes in fluid saturation to changes in seismic velocities. As a consequence of this, we found that an inversion for effective permeability based upon onset times was robust with respect to variations in the rock-physics model. In particular, inversions of synthetic onset times calculated using Voigt and Reuss averaging techniques, but inverted using sensitivities from Hill’s averaging method, resulted in almost identical misfit reductions and similar permeability models. All solutions based on onset times recovered the large-scale, resolvable features of the reference model. Synthetic tests indicated that reliable onset times can be obtained from noisy seismic amplitudes. Testing also indicated that large-scale permeability variations can be recovered even if we used onset times from seismic surveys that were spaced as much as 300 days apart.

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