Several 3D seismic acoustic full-waveform inversions (FWIs) of offshore data sets have been reported over the last five years. A successful updating of the long-to-intermediate wavelengths of the earth model by FWI requires good-quality wide-angle, long-offset, low-frequency data. Recent improvements in acquisition make such data sets available on land, too. We evaluated a 3D application on a data set recorded in North Oman. The data contain low frequencies down to 1.5 Hz, long-offsets, and wide azimuths. The application of acoustic FWI on land remains complicated because of the elastic effects, notably the strong ground-roll and many acquisition and human-activity-related noises. The presence of fast carbonate layers in this region induces velocity inversions, difficult to recover from diving or postcritical waves. We accounted for anisotropic effects as we include FWI in a classical structural imaging workflow. With a dedicated processing of the data and a simultaneous inversion of the NMO velocity and the anelliptic-anisotropic parameter, we succeeded to interpret the kinematics of transmitted and reflected waves, although in the waveform inversion we included only the diving and postcritical waves. This approach has some limitations because of the acoustic assumption. We could not obtain a high-resolution image, especially at the shale-carbonate interfaces. There is also a trade-off between the NMO velocity and the anelliptic anisotropic parameter. However, the image improvements after acoustic FWI and the ability to handle the large data volume make this technique attractive in an imaging workflow.

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