ABSTRACT

Analyzing the Aki-Richards equation for converted waves, I found that it is possible to decouple the effect of density contrast from that of shear velocity contrast. The two terms were mixed when the P-wave incident angle was less than 30°, but they started to separate at a middle angle range (approximately 40°). The term related to S-wave velocity contrast reached zero at an incident angle around 60°. However, the other term, which was related to the density contrast, did not reverse polarity until 90°. Furthermore, this density term reached almost the maximum (magnitude) around 60°. Based on those characteristics, I designed a new method called “S-Zero Stack” to capture the density contrast reliably at the subsurface interface without going to inversion. S-Zero Stack captured subsurface density anomalies using a special stacking method. It is simple but robust, even when there is noise in the common-conversion-point gathers. Combined with the traditional P-wave amplitude-variation-with-offset technique, S-Zero Stack of PS-waves may help discriminate commercial gas from fizz in gas sand and could be a useful tool in shale gas exploration to locate lower-density anomalies (sweet spots).

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