We found a data calibration scheme for frequency-domain full-waveform inversion (FWI). The scheme is based on the variable projection technique. With this scheme, the FWI algorithm can incorporate the data calibration procedure into the inversion process without introducing additional unknown parameters. The calibration variable for each frequency is computed using a minimum norm solution between the measured and simulated data. This process is directly included in the data misfit cost function. Therefore, the inversion algorithm becomes source independent. Moreover, because all the data points are considered in the calibration process, this scheme increases the robustness of the algorithm. Numerical tests determined that the FWI algorithm can reconstruct velocity distributions accurately without the source waveform information.

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