ABSTRACT

Transversely isotropic models with a tilted symmetry axis (TTI media) are widely used in depth imaging of complex geologic structures. Here, we present a modification of a previously developed 2D P-wave tomographic algorithm for estimating heterogeneous TTI velocity fields and apply it to synthetic and field data. The symmetry-direction velocity VP0, anisotropy parameters ε and δ, and symmetry-axis tilt ν are defined on a rectangular grid. To ensure stable reconstruction of the TTI parameters, reflection data are combined with walkaway vertical seismic profiling (VSP) traveltimes in joint tomographic inversion. To improve the convergence of the algorithm, we develop a three-stage model-updating procedure that gradually relaxes the constraints on the spatial variations of the anisotropy parameters, while the symmetry axis is kept orthogonal to the reflectors. Only at the final stage of the inversion are the parameters VP0, ε, and δ updated on the same grid. We also incorporate geologic constraints into tomography by designing regularization terms that penalize parameter variations in the direction parallel to the interfaces. First, we examine the performance of the regularized joint tomography of reflection and VSP data for two sections of the BP TTI model that contain an anticline and a salt dome. All three TTI parameters in the shallow part of both sections (down to 5 km) are well resolved by the proposed model-updating process. Then, the algorithm is applied to a 2D section from 3D ocean-bottom seismic data acquired at Volve field in the North Sea. The inverted TTI model produces well-focused reflectors throughout the section and accurately positions the key horizons, which is confirmed by the available well markers.

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