We tested the properties of three different coherency functionals for the velocity analysis of seismic data relative to subbasalt exploration. We evaluated the performance of the standard semblance algorithm and two high-resolution coherency functionals based on the use of analytic signals and of the covariance estimation along hyperbolic traveltime trajectories. Approximate knowledge of the wavelet was exploited to design appropriate filters that matched the primary reflections, thereby further improving the ability of the functionals to highlight the events of interest. The tests were carried out on two synthetic seismograms computed on models reproducing the geologic setting of basaltic intrusions and on common midpoint gathers from a 3D survey. Synthetic and field data had a very low signal-to-noise ratio, strong multiple contamination, and weak primary subbasalt signals. The results revealed that high-resolution coherency functionals were more suitable than semblance algorithms to detect primary signals and to distinguish them from multiples and other interfering events. This early discrimination between primaries and multiples could help to target specific signal enhancement and demultiple operations.

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