ABSTRACT

Glaciotectonic complexes have been recognized worldwide — traditionally described on the basis of outcrops or geomorphological observations. In the past few decades, geophysics has become an integral part of geologic mapping, which enables the mapping of buried glaciotectonic complexes. The geophysical methods provide different types of information and degrees of resolution and thus, a different ability to resolve the glaciotectonic structures. We evaluated these abilities on the basis of an integrated application of four commonly used geophysical methods: airborne transient electromagnetics, high-resolution reflection seismic, geoelectrical, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR). We covered an area of 100km2 in a formerly glaciated region in the western part of Denmark. The geologic setting was highly heterogeneous with glaciotectonic deformation observed in the form of large-scale structures in the seismic and airborne transient electromagnetic data to small-scale structures seen in the GPR and geoelectrical data. The seismic and GPR data provided detailed structural information, whereas the geoelectrical and electromagnetic data provided indirect lithological information through resistivities. A combination of methods with a wide span in resolution capabilities can therefore be recommendable to characterize and understand the geologic setting. The sequence of application of the different methods is primarily determined by the gross expenditure required for acquisition and processing, e.g., per kilometer of the surveys. Our experience suggested that airborne electromagnetic data should be acquired initially to obtain a 3D impression of the geologic setting. Based on these data, areas can be selected for further investigation with the more detailed but also more expensive and time-consuming methods.

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