ABSTRACT

Seismic migration is a multichannel process, in which some of the properties depend on various grid spacings. First, there is the acquisition grid, which actually consists of two grids: a grid of source locations and, for each source location, a grid of receiver locations. In addition, there is a third grid, the migration grid, whose spacings also affect properties of the migration. Sampling theory imposes restrictions on migration, limiting the frequency content that can be migrated reliably given the grid spacings. The presence of three grids complicates the application of sampling theory except in unusual situations (e.g., the isolated migration of a single shot record). I analyzed the effects of the grids on different types of migration (Kirchhoff, wavefield extrapolation migration, and slant-stack migration), specifically in the context of migration operator antialiasing. I evaluated general antialiasing criteria for the different types of migration; my examples placed particular emphasis on one style of data acquisition, orthogonal source and receiver lines, which is commonly used on land and which presents particular challenges for the analysis. It is known that migration artifacts caused by inadequate antialiasing can interfere with velocity and amplitude analyses. I found, in addition, that even migrations with adequate antialiasing protection can have the side effect of inaccurate amplitudes resulting from a given acquisition, and I tested how this effect can be compensated.

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