ABSTRACT

With the more widespread introduction of multicomponent recording devices in land and marine ocean-bottom seismic acquisition, elastic imaging may become mainstream in coming years. We have derived new, nonlinear, elastic imaging conditions. A correlation-type representation theorem for perturbed elastic media, commonly used in seismic interferometry to explain how a scattered wave response between two receivers/sources may be predicted given a boundary of sources/receivers, can be considered as a starting point for the derivation. Here, we use this theorem to derive and interpret imaging conditions for elastic migration by wavefield extrapolation (e.g., elastic reverse-time migration). Some approximations lead to a known, heuristically derived imaging condition that crosscorrelates P- and S-wave potentials that are separated in the subsurface after full-wavefield extrapolation. This formal connection reveals that the nonapproximated correlation-type representation theorem can be interpreted as a nonlinear imaging condition, that accounts also for multiply scattered and multiply converted waves, properly focusing such energy at each image point. We present a synthetic data example using either an ideal (acquisition on a full, closed boundary) or a real (partial boundary) seismic exploration survey, and we demonstrate the importance of nonlinearities in pure- and converted-mode imaging. In PP imaging, they result in better illumination and artifact reduction, whereas in PS imaging they show how zero time-lag and zero space-lag crosscorrelation imaging conditions are not ideal for imaging of converted-mode waves because no conversion arises from zero-offset experiments.

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