With interferometry applied to controlled-source electromagnetic data, the direct field and the airwave and all other effects related to the air-water interface can be suppressed in a data-driven way. Interferometry allows for retreival of the scattered field Green’s function of the subsurface or, in other words, the subsurface reflection response. This reflection response can then be further used to invert for the subsurface conductivity distribution. To perform interferometry in 3D, measurements on an areal grid are necessary. We discuss 3D interferometry by multidimensional deconvolution in the frequency-wavenumber and in the frequency-space domains and provide examples for a layered earth model. We use the synthetic aperture source concept to damp the signal at high wavenumbers to allow large receiver sampling distances. Interferometry indeed increases the detectability of a subsurface reservoir. Finally, we discuss the dependency of the accuracy of the retrieved reflection response on the two crucial parameters: the conductivity of the seabed at the receiver location and the stabilization parameter of the least-squares inversion.

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