Full waveform inversion is a method used to recover subsurface parameters, and it requires heavy computational resources. We present a cyclic shot subsampling method to make the full waveform inversion efficient while maintaining the quality of the inversion results. The cyclic method subsamples the shots at a regular interval and changes the shot subset at each iteration step. Using this method, we can suppress the aliasing noise present in regular-interval subsampling. We compared the cyclic method with divide-and-conquer, random, and random-in-each-subgroup subsampling methods using the Laplace-domain full waveform inversion. We found examples of a 2D marine field data set from the Gulf of Mexico and a 3D synthetic salt velocity model. In the inversion examples using the subsampling methods, we could reduce the computation time and obtain results comparable to that without a subsampling technique. The cyclic method and two random subsampling methods yielded similar results; however, the cyclic method generated the best results, especially when the number of shot subsamples was small, as expected. We also examined the effect of subsample updating frequency. The updating frequency does not have a significant effect on the results when the number of subsamples is large. In contrast, frequent subsample updating becomes important when the number of subsamples is small. The random-in-each-subgroup scheme showed the best results if we did not update the subsamples frequently, while the cyclic method suffers from aliasing. The results suggested that the cyclic subsampling scheme can be an alternative to the random schemes and the distributed subsampling schemes with a frequently changing subset are better than lumped subsampling schemes.

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