Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy is a nondestructive method providing ultra-high-resolution 3D digital images of rock microstructures. We describe this method and, to demonstrate its wide applicability, we present 3D images of very different rock types: Berea sandstone, Fontainebleau sandstone, dolomite, calcitic dolomite, and three-phase magmatic glasses. For some samples, full and partial saturation scenarios are considered using oil, water, and air. The rock images precisely reveal the 3D rock microstructure, the pore space morphology, and the interfaces between fluids saturating the same pore. We provide the raw image data sets as online supplementary material, along with laboratory data describing the rock properties. By making these data sets available to other research groups, we aim to stimulate work based on digital rock images of high quality and high resolution. We also discuss and suggest possible applications and research directions that can be pursued on the basis of our data.