Seismic reflection data was applied to a study of the upper crustal structures in the Outokumpu mining and exploration area in eastern Finland. The Cu-Co-Zn sulfide ore deposits of the Outokumpu area are hosted by Palaeoproterozoic ophiolite-derived altered ultrabasic rocks (serpentinite, skarn rock, and quartz rock) and black schist within turbiditic mica schist. Mining in the Outokumpu area has produced a total of 36 Mt of ore from three historical and one active mine. Seismic data comprises 2D vibroseis data surveyed along a network of local roads. The seismic sections provide a comprehensive 3D view of the reflective structures. Acoustic rock properties from downhole logging and synthetic seismograms indicate that the strongly reflective packages shown in the seismic data can be identified as the host-rock environments of the deposits. Reflectors show excellent continuity along the structural grain of the ore belt, which allows correlating reflectors with surface geology, magnetic map, and drilling sections into a broad 3D model of the ore belt. Massive ores have acoustic properties that make them directly detectable with seismic reflection methods assuming the deposit size is sufficient for applied seismic wavelengths. The seismic data revealed numerous interesting high-amplitude reflectors within the interpreted host-rock suites potentially coinciding with sulfides.

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