ABSTRACT

A method of imaging sea surfaces based on marine seismic measurements has recently been developed. The imaging technique is based on extrapolating decomposed wavefields obtained from dual-sensor streamers to the sea surface where an adequate imaging condition is applied. Earlier feasibility tests of the method involved only controlled data associated with frozen sea surfaces. Here, the issue of time-varying effects will be in focus. We introduced a modeling approach based on the Kirchhoff-Helmholtz integral and computed the scattered wavefield from time-varying rough sea surfaces (e.g., Pierson-Moskowitz sea surfaces). We generated data for a realistic wind speed and verify the robustness of the proposed sea surface imaging technique by taking into account possible effects of moving receivers as well as streamers with variable shape. We investigate the feasibility of estimating the surface wave velocity from the spectra of the imaged sea surfaces and finally present a successful application of the sea surface imaging technique to data from the North Sea.

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