ABSTRACT

We apply the cross-coherence method to the seismic interferometry of traffic noise, which originates from roads and railways, to retrieve both body waves and surface-waves. Our preferred algorithm in the presence of highly variable and strong additive random noise uses cross-coherence, which uses normalization by the spectral amplitude of each of the traces, rather than crosscorrelation or deconvolution. This normalization suppresses the influence of additive noise and overcomes problems resulting from amplitude variations among input traces. By using only the phase information and ignoring amplitude information, the method effectively removes the source signature from the extracted response and yields a stable structural reconstruction even in the presence of strong noise. This algorithm is particularly effective where the relative amplitude among the original traces is highly variable from trace to trace. We use the extracted, reflected shear waves from the traffic noise data to construct a stacked and migrated image, and we use the extracted surface-waves (Love waves) to estimate the shear velocity as a function of depth. This profile agrees well with the interval velocity obtained from the normal moveout of the reflected shear waves constructed by seismic interferometry. These results are useful in a wide range of situations applicable to both geophysics and civil engineering.

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