ABSTRACT

Various reverse time migration (RTM) angle gather generation techniques have been developed to address poor subsalt data quality and multiarrival induced problems in gathers from Kirchhoff migration. But these techniques introduce new problems, such as inaccuracies in 2D subsurface angle gathers and edge diffraction artifacts in 3D subsurface angle gathers. The unique rich-azimuth data set acquired over the Shenzi field in the Gulf of Mexico enabled the generally artifact-free generation of 3D subsurface angle gathers. Using this data set, we carried out suprasalt tomography and salt model building steps and then produced 3D angle gathers to update the subsalt velocity. We used tilted transverse isotropy RTM with extended image condition to generate full 3D subsurface offset domain common image gathers, which were subsequently converted to 3D angle gathers. The angle gathers were substacked along the subsurface azimuth axis into azimuth sectors. Residual moveout analysis was carried out, and ray-based tomography was used to update velocities. The updated velocity model resulted in improved imaging of the subsalt section. We also applied residual moveout and selective stacking to 3D angle gathers from the final migration to produce an optimized stack image.

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