We have extended the method of stationary spiking deconvolution of seismic data to the context of nonstationary signals in which the nonstationarity is due to attenuation processes. As in the stationary case, we have assumed a statistically white reflectivity and a minimum-phase source and attenuation process. This extension is based on a nonstationary convolutional model, which we have developed and related to the stationary convolutional model. To facilitate our method, we have devised a simple numerical approach to calculate the discrete Gabor transform, or complex-valued time-frequency decomposition, of any signal. Although the Fourier transform renders stationary convolution into exact, multiplicative factors, the Gabor transform, or windowed Fourier transform, induces only an approximate factorization of the nonstationary convolutional model. This factorization serves as a guide to develop a smoothing process that, when applied to the Gabor transform of the nonstationary seismic trace, estimates the magnitude of the time-frequency attenuation function and the source wavelet. By assuming that both are minimum-phase processes, their phases can be determined. Gabor deconvolution is accomplished by spectral division in the time-frequency domain. The complex-valued Gabor transform of the seismic trace is divided by the complex-valued estimates of attenuation and source wavelet to estimate the Gabor transform of the reflectivity. An inverse Gabor transform recovers the time-domain reflectivity. The technique has applications to synthetic data and real data.

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