We present a rank reduction algorithm that permits simultaneous reconstruction and random noise attenuation of seismic records. We based our technique on multichannel singular spectrum analysis (MSSA). The technique entails organizing spatial data at a given temporal frequency into a block Hankel matrix that in ideal conditions is a matrix of rank k, where k is the number of plane waves in the window of analysis. Additive noise and missing samples will increase the rank of the block Hankel matrix of the data. Consequently, rank reduction is proposed as a means to attenuate noise and recover missing traces. We present an iterative algorithm that resembles seismic data reconstruction with the method of projection onto convex sets. In addition, we propose to adopt a randomized singular value decomposition to accelerate the rank reduction stage of the algorithm. We apply MSSA reconstruction to synthetic examples and a field data set. Synthetic examples were used to assess the performance of the method in two reconstruction scenarios: a noise-free case and data contaminated with noise. In both cases, we found extremely low reconstructions errors that are indicative of an optimal recovery. The field data example consists of a 2D prestack volume that depends on common midpoint and offset. We use the MSSA reconstruction method to complete missing offsets and, at the same time, increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the seismic volume.

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