Reverse-time migration (RTM) exhibits great superiority over other imaging algorithms in handling steeply dipping structures and complicated velocity models. However, low-frequency, high-amplitude noises commonly seen in a typical RTM image have been one of the major concerns because they can seriously contaminate the signals in the image if they are not handled properly. We propose a new imaging condition to effectively and efficiently eliminate these specific noises from the image. The method works by first decomposing the source and receiver wavefields to their one-way propagation components, followed by applying a correlation-based imaging condition to the appropriate combinations of the decomposed wavefields. We first give the physical explanation of the principle of such noises in the conventional RTM image. Then we provide the detailed mathematical theory for the new imaging condition. Finally, we propose an efficient scheme for its numerical implementation. It replaces the computationally intensive decomposition with the cost-effective Hilbert transform, which significantly improves the efficiency of the imaging condition. Applications to various synthetic and real data sets demonstrate that this new imaging condition can effectively remove the undesired low-frequency noises in the image.

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