Abstract

Conventional offset domain prestack migration tends to bring ambiguity and migration artifacts because it smears energy from different angles at the image point. To avoid this, prestack depth migration implementations in angle domain have been investigated in the past decades. As an efficient imaging tool, angle domain Kirchhoff prestack time migration is still useful and was proposed recently. However, existing algorithms cannot handle ray bending and anisotropy correctly. Practically, azimuth analysis for fractured reservoirs should be carried out after migration for most geological settings. Unfortunately, the existing migration algorithm implicitly involves some kind of binning to source-receiver azimuth, which may not be the real wave-pathazimuth, especially for side-scattering or out-of-plane waves. In this paper, we present an algorithm for 3D Kirchhoff prestack time migration in average illumination azimuth and incident angle domain, which matches true wave path naturally and more accurately. To handle ray bending and vertical transversely isotropy, we propose several approaches to estimate two-way traveltime and the corresponding angular attributes through extended offset-to-angle mapping. Based upon these approaches, our 3D prestack time migration can provide high-quality common-image gathers for amplitude variation with incident angle and/or amplitude variation with offset and azimuth analyses, even in media with slight to moderate lateral heterogeneity. The 2D and 3D synthetic examples prove the validity of our methods.

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