Microseismic monitoring of reservoir processes can be performed using surface or near-surface arrays. We review the published technical basis for the use of the arrays and the historical development of the method, beginning with locating earthquakes through geothermal exploration to the growing field of hydraulic-fracture monitoring. Practical considerations for the array deployment and data processing are presented. The road ahead for the technology includes a move toward life-of-field buried arrays as well as opportunities for extended interpretation of the data, particularly inversion for source-mechanism estimation and measurement of anisotropy in the monitored subsurface.

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