Abstract

During the past 80years, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has evolved from a skeptically received glacier sounder to a full multicomponent 3D volume-imaging and characterization device. The tool can be calibrated to allow for quantitative estimates of physical properties such as water content. Because of its high resolution, GPR is a valuable tool for quantifying subsurface heterogeneity, and its ability to see nonmetallic and metallic objects makes it a useful mapping tool to detect, localize, and characterize buried objects. No tool solves all problems; so to determine whether GPR is appropriate for a given problem, studying the reasons for failure can provide an understanding of the basics, which in turn can help determine whether GPR is appropriate for a given problem. We discuss the specific aspects of borehole radar and describe recent developments to become more sensitiveto orientation and to exploit the supplementary information in different components in polarimetric uses of radar data. Multicomponent GPR data contain more diverse geometric information than single-channel data, and this is exploited in developed dedicated imaging algorithms. The evolution of these imaging schemes is discussed for ground-coupled and air-coupled antennas. For air-coupled antennas, the measured radiated wavefield can be used as the basis for the wavefield extrapolator in linear-inversion schemes with an imaging condition, which eliminates the source-time function and corrects for the measured radiation pattern. A handheld GPR system coupled with a metal detector is ready for routine use in mine fields. Recent advances in modeling, tomography, and full-waveform inversion, as well as Green's function extraction through correlation and deconvolution, show much promise in this field.

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