The virtual-reflector (VR) method creates new seismic signals by processing seismic traces that have been produced by impulsive or transient sources. Under proper recording-coverage conditions, this technique allows a seismogram to be obtained as if there were an ideal reflector at the position of the receivers (or sources). Only the reflected signals from this reflector are synthesized. The algorithm is independent of the medium-velocity model and is based on convolution of the recorded traces and on subsequent integration of the crossconvolved signals in the receiver (or source) space. We use the VR method in combination with seismic interferometry (SI) by crosscorrelation to compose corresponding virtual-reflection events in seismic exploration. For that purpose, we use weighted-summation and data-crossfiltering approaches. In applying these combination methods, we assume common travel paths in the virtual signals, taking into account that VR and SI by crosscorrelation imply different stationary-phase conditions. We present applications in which we combine the SI-by-crosscorrelation and VR signals to (1) suppress unwanted effects, such as marine water-layer reflections in synthetic ocean-bottom-cable data, and (2) obtain virtual two-way traveltime seismograms with real borehole data from walkaway vertical seismic profiling (VSP). Analysis shows that time gating and selection of reflection events are critical steps in processing water-layer multiples.

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