Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) sections encounter a resolution reduction with depth because, for electromagnetic (EM) waves propagating in the subsurface, attenuation is typically more pronounced at higher frequencies. To correct for these effects, we have applied a spectral balancing technique, using the S-transform (ST). This signal-processing technique avoids the drawbacks of inverse Q* filtering techniques, namely, the need for estimation of the attenuation factor Q* from the GPR section and instability caused by scattering effects that result from methods of dominant frequency-dependent estimation of Q*. The method designs and applies a gain in the time-frequency (t-f) domain and involves the selection of a time-variant bandwidth to reduce high-frequency noise. This method requires a reference amplitude spectrum for spectral shaping. It performs spectral balancing, which works efficiently for GPR data when it is applied in very narrow time windows. Furthermore, we have found that spectral balancing must be applied prior to deconvolution, instead of being an alternative technique.

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