Abstract

Starting with the double-square-root equation we derive expressions for a velocity-independent prestack time migration and for the associated migration velocity. We then use that velocity to identify multiples and suppress them as part of the imaging step. To describe our algorithm, workflow, and products, we use the terms velocity-independent and oriented. While velocity-independent imaging does not require an input migration velocity, it does require input p-values (also called local event slopes) measured in both the shot and receiver domains. There are many possible methods of calculating these required input p-values, perhaps the simplest is to compute the ratio of instantaneous spatial frequency to instantaneous temporal frequency. Using a synthetic data set rich in multiples, we test the oriented algorithm and generate migrated prestack gathers, the oriented migration velocity field, and stacked migrations. We use oriented migration velocities for prestack multiple suppression. Without this multiple suppression step, the velocity-independent migration is inferior to a conventional Kirchhoff migration because the oriented migration will flatten primaries and multiples alike in the common image domain. With this multiple suppression step, the velocity-independent are very similar to a Kirchhoff migration generated using the known migration velocity of this test data set.

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