Although significant advancement has occurred in the interpretation of seismic amplitude-variation-with-offset (AVO) anomalies, a theory is lacking to guide the interpretation of frequency-dependent seismic anomalies. Using analytic equations and numerical modeling, we have investigated characteristics of the normal-incident reflection coefficient (NI) as a function of frequency at an interface between a nondispersive medium and a patchy-saturated dispersive medium. Because of velocity dispersion, the variation of NI magnitude is divided into three general classes. These classes are (1) low-frequency dim-out reservoirs, in which NI magnitude decreases toward lower frequencies; (2) phase-shift reservoirs, in which NI is a small negative value at low frequencies but becomes positive at higher frequencies; and (3) low-frequency bright-spot reservoirs, in which NI magnitude increases toward lower frequencies. This classification could provide insight for frequency-dependent seismic interpre-tation.

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