Reservoir rocks are often saturated by two or more fluid phases forming complex patterns on all length scales. The objective of this work is to quantify the geometry of fluid phase distribution in partially saturated porous rocks using statistical methods and to model the associated acoustic signatures. Based on X-ray tomographic images at submillimeter resolution obtained during a gas-injection experiment, the spatial distribution of the gas phase in initially water-saturated limestone samples are constructed. Maps of the continuous variation of the percentage of gas saturation are computed and associated binary maps obtained through a global thresholding technique. The autocorrelation function is derived via the two-point probability function computed from the binary gas-distribution maps using Monte Carlo simulations. The autocorrelation function can be approximated well by a single Debye correlation function or a superposition of two such functions. The characteristic length scales and show sensitivity (and hence significance) with respect to the percentage of gas saturation. An almost linear decrease of the Debye correlation length occurs with increasing gas saturation. It is concluded that correlation function and correlation length provide useful statistical information to quantify fluid-saturation patterns and changes in these patterns at the mesoscale. These spatial statistical measures are linked to a model that predicts compressional wave attenuation and dispersion from local, wave-induced fluid flow in randomly heterogeneous poroelastic solids. In particular, for a limestone sample, with flow permeability of 5 darcies and an average gas saturation of 5%, significant P-wave attenuation is predicted at ultrasonic frequencies.

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