Abstract

No perfectly elastic medium exists in the earth. In an anelastic medium, seismic waves are distorted by attenuation and velocity dispersion. Velocity dispersion depends on the petrophysical properties of reservoir rocks, such as porosity, fractures, fluid mobility, and the scale of heterogeneities. However, velocity dispersion usually is neglected in seismic data processing partly because of the insufficiency of observations in the exploration seismic frequency band (∼5 through 200Hz). The feasibility of determining velocity dispersion in this band is investigated. Four methods are used in measuring velocity dispersion from uncorrelated vibrator vertical seismic profile (VSP) data: the moving window crosscorrelation (MWCC) method, instantaneous phase method, time-frequency spectral decomposition method, and cross-spectrum method. The MWCC method is a new method that is satisfactorily robust, accurate, and efficient in measuring the frequency-dependent traveltime in uncorrelated vibrator records. The MWCC method is applied to the uncorrelated vibrator VSP data acquired in the Mallik gas hydrate research well. For the first time, continuous velocity dispersion is observed in the exploration seismic frequency band using uncorrelated vibrator VSP data. The observed velocity dispersion is fitted to a straight line with respect to log frequency to calculate Q. This provides an alternative method for Q measurement.

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