Abstract

Imaging 2D multichannel land seismic data can be accomplished effectively by a combination of traveltime inversion and prestack depth migration (PSDM), referred to as unified imaging. Unified imaging begins by inverting the direct-arrival times to estimate a velocity model that is used in static corrections and stacking velocity analysis. The interval velocity model (from stacking velocities) is used for PSDM. The stacked data and the PSDM image are interpreted for common horizons, and the corresponding wide-aperture reflections are identified in the shot gathers. Using the interval velocity model, the stack interpretations are inverted as zero-offset reflections to constrain the corresponding interfaces in depth; the interval velocity model remains stationary. We define a coefficient of congruence j that measures the discrepancy between horizons from the PSDM image andtheir counterparts from the zero-offset inversion. A value of unity for j implies that the interpreted and inverted horizons are consistent to within the interpretational uncertainties, and the unified imaging is said to have converged. For j greater than unity, the interval velocity model and the horizon depths are updated by jointly inverting the direct arrivals with the zero-offset and wide-aperture reflections. The updated interval velocity model is used again for both PSDM and a zero-offset inversion. Interpretations of the new PSDM image are the updated horizon depths. The unified imaging is applied to seismic data from the Naga Thrust and Fold Belt in India. Wide-aperture and zero-offset data from three geologically significant horizons are used. Three runs of joint inversion and PSDM are required in a cyclic manner for j to converge to unity. A joint interpretation of the final velocity model and depth image reveals the presence of a triangle zone that could be promising for exploration.

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