Abstract

Seismic interferometry has become a technology of growing interest for imaging borehole seismic data. We demonstrate that interferometry of internal multiples can be used to image targets above a borehole receiver array. By internal multiples, we refer to all types of waves that scatter multiple times inside the model. These include, for instance, interbed, intrasalt, and water-bottom multiples as well as conversions among them. We use an interferometry technique that is based on representation theorems for perturbed media and targets the reconstruction of specific primary reflections from multiply reflected waves. In this interferometry approach, we rely on shot-domain wavenumber separation to select the directions of waves arriving at a given receiver. Using a numerical walkaway (WAW) VSP experiment recorded by a subsalt borehole receiver array in the Sigsbee salt model, we use the interference of internal multiples to image the salt structure from below. In this numerical example, the interferometric image that uses internal multiples reconstructs the bottom- and top-of-salt reflectors above the receiver array as well as the subsalt sediment structure between the array and the salt. Because of the limited source summation in this interferometry example, the interferometric images show artifact reflectors within the salt body. We apply this method to a field walkaway VSP from the Gulf of Mexico. With the field data, we demonstrate that the choice of shot-domain wavenumbers in the target-oriented interferometry procedure controls the wavenumbers in the output pseudoshot gathers. Target-oriented interferometric imaging from the 20-receiver array recovers the top-of-salt reflector that is consistent with surface seismic images. We present our results with both correlation-based and deconvolution-based interferometry.

You do not currently have access to this article.