Abstract

Ground-penetrating radar is a fast noninvasive technique that can monitor subsurface structure and water-content distribution. To interpret traveltime information from single common-offset measurements, additional assumptions, such as constant permittivity, usually are required. We present a fast ground-penetrating-radar measurement technique using a multiple transmitter-and-receiver setup to measure simultaneously the reflector depth and average soil-water content. It can be considered a moving minicommon-midpoint measurement. For a simple analysis, we use a straightforward evaluation procedure that includes two traveltimes to the same reflector, obtained from different antenna separations. For a more accurate approach, an inverse evaluation procedure is added, using traveltimes obtained from all antenna separations at one position and its neighboring measurement locations. The evaluation of a synthetic data set with a lateral variability in reflector depth and an experimental example with a large variability in soil-water content are introduced to demonstrate the applicability for field-scale measurements. The crucial point for this application is the access to absolute traveltimes, which are difficult to determine accurately from common-offset measurements.

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