Abstract

Wavefield extrapolators using one-way wave equations are computationally efficient methods for accurate traveltime modeling in laterally heterogeneous media, and have been used extensively in many seismic forward modeling and migration problems. However, most leading-order, one-way wave equations do not simulate waveform amplitudes accurately and this is primarily because energy flux is not accounted for correctly. I review the derivation of a leading-order, narrow-angle, one-way elastic wave equation for 3D media. I derive correction terms that enable energy-flux normalization and introduce a new higher-order, narrow-angle, one-way elastic wave extrapolator. By implementing these correction terms, the new true amplitude wave extrapolator allows accurate amplitude estimates in the presence of strong gradients. I present numerical examples for 1D velocity transition models to show that (1) the leading-order, narrow-angle propagator accurately models traveltimes, but overestimates transmitted- or primary-wave amplitudes and (2) the new amplitude corrected narrow-angle propagator accurately models both the traveltimes and amplitudes of all forward-traveling waves.

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