Abstract

Much of seismic stratigraphy is based on the morphology of seismic textures. The identification of reflector terminations and subtle changes in dip and azimuth allows us to infer coherent progradational and transgressive packages as well as more chaotic slumps, fans, and braided-stream complexes; infill of karsted terrains; gas seeps; and, of course, faults and angular unconformities. A major difficulty in estimating reflector dip and azimuth arises at discrete lateral and vertical discontinuities across which reflector dip and azimuth change. The smearing across these boundaries produced by traditional dip and azimuth estimations is avoided by using temporally and spatially shifted multiple windows that contain each analysis point. This more robust estimation of dip and azimuth leads to increased resolution of well-established algorithms such as coherence, coherent amplitude gradients, and structurally oriented filtering. More promising still is the analysis of high-resolution dip and azimuth through volumetric estimates of reflector curvature and angular unconformities. This new technique is demonstrated using two land data volumes, one from the Louisiana salt province and the other from the fractured Fort Worth basin.

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