Abstract

Controlled-source electromagnetic-conductivity profiles and maps were obtained on the Brazos Valley, Texas, floodplain to study the fractal statistics of geologic noise and the effects of man-made conductive metal targets. Fourier transform, discrete wavelet transforms, and variogram analyses were used. Targets tend to flatten the power-law power spectrum at small wavenumbers and shift power to higher wavenumbers. Detection and localization of targets can be achieved using wavelet spectrogram techniques. Additionally, variograms from pure background conductivity maps show a power-law trend for all lags, whereas, in the presence of targets, a short power-law trend is followed by a sill corresponding to a loss in spatial correlation. A simple preprocessing step that combines responses from two perpendicular transmitter-receiver orientations enhances the localization of targets and rejects background signals in profiles and 2D apparent-conductivity maps. Finally, a field example shows how the use of wavelet filtering is able to separate target responses from the geologic background.

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