Multiples can be suppressed in the angle-domain image space after migration. For a given velocity model, primaries and multiples have different angle-domain moveout and, therefore, can be separated using techniques similar to the ones employed in the data space prior to migration. We use Radon transforms in the image space to discriminate between primaries and multiples and employ accurate functions describing angle-domain moveouts. Since every individual angle-domain common-image gather incorporates complex 3D propagation effects, our method has the advantage of working with 3D data and complicated geology. Therefore, our method offers an alternative to the more expensive surface-related multiple-elimination (SRME) approach operating in the data space.
Radon transforms are cheap but not necessarily ideal for separating primaries and multiples, particularly at small angles where the moveout discrepancy between the two kinds of events are not large. Better techniques involving signal/noise separation using prediction-error filters can be employed as well, although such approaches fall outside the scope of this paper. We demonstrate, using synthetic and real data examples, the power of our method in discriminating between primaries and multiples after migration by wavefield extrapolation, followed by transformation to the angle domain.