The finite-difference time-domain method was used to simulate radar waves that were generated by a transmitting antenna inside a borehole. The simulations were of four different models that included features such as a water-filled borehole and an antenna with resistive loading. For each model, radiation patterns for the far-field region were calculated. The radiation patterns show that the amplitude of the radar wave was strongly affected by its frequency, the water-filled borehole, the resistive loading of the antenna, and the external metal parts of the antenna (e.g., the cable head and the battery pack). For the models with a water-filled borehole, their normalized radiation patterns were practically identical to the normalized radiation pattern of a finite-length electric dipole when the wavelength in the formation was significantly greater than the total length of the radiating elements of the model antenna. The minimum wavelength at which this criterion was satisfied depended upon the features of the antenna, especially its external metal parts.

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