Abstract

To understand the electromagnetic waves generated by a prototype dielectric logging tool, a numerical study was conducted using both the finite-difference, time-domain method and a frequency-wavenumber method. When the propagation velocity in the borehole was greater than that in the formation (e.g., an air-filled borehole in the unsaturated zone), only a guided wave propagated along the borehole. As the frequency decreased, both the phase and the group velocities of the guided wave asymptotically approached the phase velocity of a plane wave in the formation. The guided wave radiated electromagnetic energy into the formation, causing its amplitude to decrease. When the propagation velocity in the borehole was less than that in the formation (e.g., a water-filled borehole in the saturated zone), both a refracted wave and a guided wave propagated along the borehole. The velocity of the refracted wave equaled the phase velocity of a plane wave in the formation, and the refracted wave preceded the guided wave. As the frequency decreased, both the phase and the group velocities of the guided wave asymptotically approached the phase velocity of a plane wave in the formation. The guided wave did not radiate electromagnetic energy into the formation. To analyze traces recorded by the prototype tool during laboratory tests, they were compared to traces calculated with the finite-difference method. The first parts of both the recorded and the calculated traces were similar, indicating that guided and refracted waves indeed propagated along the prototype tool.

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