Converted seismic waves (specifically, downgoing P-waves that convert on reflection to upcoming S-waves) are increasingly being used to explore for subsurface targets. Rapid advancements in both land and marine multicomponent acquisition and processing techniques have led to numerous applications for P-S surveys. Uses that have arisen include structural imaging (e.g., “seeing” through gas-bearing sediments, improved fault definition, enhanced near-surface resolution), lithologic estimation (e.g., sand versus shale content, porosity), anisotropy analysis (e.g., fracture density and orientation), subsurface fluid description, and reservoir monitoring. Further applications of P-S data and analysis of other more complicated converted modes are developing.

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