Abstract

Reservoir analogs provide detailed information that is applicable to fluid transport simulations but that cannot be obtained directly from reservoirs because of inaccessibility. The Ferron Sandstone of east-central Utah is an analog for fluviodeltaic reservoirs; its excellent outcrop exposures are ideal for detailed study. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data were collected in and between two cored boreholes and are used to build a 2-D fluid permeability model in four steps. First, an anisotropic GPR propagation velocity model is obtained from traveltime tomography between two boreholes and between each borehole and the earth's surface. Second, the geometry of the sedimentological features is imaged by prestack Kirchhoff depth migration of constant-offset GPR data acquired along a line between the two holes at the earth's surface. Third, a background permeability is assigned to each layer by interpolating the geometrical average of the measured permeabilities in each sedimentological element. Finally, the spatial distribution of flow baffles and barriers is estimated by calibrating the instantaneous amplitude and frequency of the surface GPR data associated with the mudstone layers in the boreholes via cluster analysis. The result is an integrated model that contains GPR velocity, lithology, and fluid permeability distributions. Low GPR velocities correspond to mudstones with low permeability. The main mudstone layers (potential barriers and/or baffles to fluid flow) do not appear to be continuous between the boreholes, which means that interpretations based on borehole data alone would overestimate element continuity and thereby underestimate effective permeability.

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