Time-lapse seismic reservoir monitoring has advanced rapidly over the past decade. There are currently about 75 active projects worldwide, and more than 100 cumulative projects in the past decade or so. The present total annual expenditures on 4-D seismic projects are on the order of $50–100 million US. This currently represents a much smaller market than 3-D seismic, but the use of 4-D seismic has grown exponentially over the past decade and is expected to continue to do so.

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