Abstract

A ray series solution for Maxwell's equations provides an efficient numerical technique for calculating wavefronts and raypaths associated with electromagnetic waves in anisotropic media. Using this methodology and assuming weak anisotropy, we show that a perturbation of the anisotropic structure may be related linearly to a variation in the traveltime of an electromagnetic wave. Thus, it is possible to infer lateral variations in the dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability matrices. The perturbation approach is used to analyze a series of crosswell ground-penetrating radar surveys conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Several important geological features are imaged, including a rubble zone at the interface between two basalt flows. Linear low-velocity anomalies are imaged clearly and are continuous across well pairs.

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