The transformation of surface seismic data into a subsurface image can be separated into two components—focusing and positioning. Focusing is associated with ensuring the data from different offsets are contributing constructively to the same event. Positioning involves the transformation of the focused events into a depth image consistent with a given velocity model. In prestack depth migration, both of these operations are achieved simultaneously; however, for 3-D data, the cost is significant. Prestack time migration is much more economical and focuses events well even in the presence of moderate velocity variations, but suffers from mispositioning problems. Hybrid migration is a cost-effective depth-imaging approach that uses prestack time migration for focusing; inverse migration for the removal of positioning errors; and poststack depth migration for proper positioning. When lateral velocity changes are moderate, the hybrid technique can generate a depth image that is consistent with a velocity field. For very complex structures that require prestack depth migration, the results of the hybrid technique can be used to create a starting velocity model, thereby reducing the number of iterations for velocity model building.

This content is PDF only. Please click on the PDF icon to access.

First Page Preview

First page PDF preview
You do not currently have access to this article.