Abstract

We recorded high-resolution (1 to 10 kHz), crosswell and single well seismic data in a shallow (15 to 35 m), water-saturated, fractured limestone sequence at Conoco's borehole test facility near Newkirk, Oklahoma. Our objective was to develop seismic methodologies for imaging gas-filled fractures in naturally fractured gas reservoirs. The crosswell (1/4 m receiver spacing, 50 to 100 m well separation) surveys used a piezoelectric source and hydrophones before, during, and after an air injection that we designed to displace water from a fracture zone. Our intent was to increase the visibility of the fracture zone to seismic imaging and to confirm previous hydrologic data that indicated a preferred pathway. For the single well seismic imaging (a piezoelectric source and an eight-element hydrophone array at 1/4 m spacing), we also recorded data before and after the air injection. The crosswell results indicate that the air did follow a preferred pathway that was predicted by hydrologic modeling. In addition, the single well seismic imaging using vertical common depth-point (CDP) gathers indicated an anomaly consistent with the anomaly location of crosswell and hydrologic inversion results. Following the field tests, a slant well was drilled and cored to confirm the existence and nature of the rock associated with the seismic anomalies. A vertical fracture was intersected within less than 1 m of where the seismic results had predicted.

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