Attenuating random noise with a prediction filter in the time-space domain generally produces results similar to those of predictions done in the frequency-space domain. However, in the presence of moderate- to high-amplitude noise, time-space or t-x prediction passes less random noise than does frequency-space, or f-x prediction. The f-x prediction may also produce false events in the presence of parallel events where t-x prediction does not. These advantages of t-x prediction are the result of its ability to control the length of the prediction filter in time. An f-x prediction produces an effective t-x domain filter that is as long in time as the input data. Gulunay's f-x domain prediction tends to bias the predictions toward the traces nearest the output trace, allowing somewhat more noise to be passed, but this bias may be overcome by modifying the system of equations used to calculate the filter. The 3-D extension to the 2-D t-x and f-x prediction techniques allows improved noise attenuation because more samples are used in the predictions, and the requirement that events be strictly linear is relaxed.

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