Abstract

The Geostack technique is a method of analyzing seismic amplitude variation with offset (AVO) information. One of the outputs of the analysis is a set of direct hydrocarbon indicator traces called 'fluid factor' traces. The fluid factor trace is designed to be low amplitude for all reflectors in a clastic sedimentary sequence except for rocks that lie off the 'mudrock line.' The mudrock line is the line on a crossplot of P-wave velocity against S-wave velocity on which water-saturated sandstones, shales, and siltstones lie. Some of the rock types that lie off the mudrock line are gas-saturated sandstones, carbonates, and igneous rocks. In the absence of carbonates and igneous rocks, high amplitude reflections on fluid factor traces would be expected to represent gas-saturated sandstones. Of course, this relationship does not apply exactly in nature, and the extent to which the mudrock line model applies varies from area to area. However, it is a useful model in many basins of the world, including the one studied here.Geostack processing has been done on a 3-D seismic data set over the Mossel Bay gas field on the southern continental shelf of South Africa. We found that anomalously high amplitude fluid factor reflections occurred at the top and base of the gas-reservoir sandstone. Maps were made of the amplitude of these fluid factor reflections, and it was found that the high amplitude values were restricted mainly to the gas field area as determined by drilling. The highest amplitudes were found to be located roughly in the areas of best reservoir quality (i.e., highest porosity) in areas where the reservoir is relatively thick.

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