A surface stacking chart (Sheriff and Geldart, 1982; Yilmaz, 1987) is a convenient graphical representation, in source-receiver space, of the trace geometry for a seismic survey. In this display format, collections of traces corresponding to common-receiver, common-source, common-offset, and common-midpoint (CMP) gathers are aligned along vertical, horizontal, 45 degree, and 135 degree azimuths (θ), with respect to the receiver axis. Provided that the source spacing (Δs) is an integer multiple of the receiver interval (Δr), traces are exactly aligned in these directions (neglecting skids, detours, etc.). The subsurface multiplicity (fold) along lines of constant CMP is then given by the well known expression.

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