Use of high-resolution seismics were applied to the exploration and development of coal deposits in the Upper Silesian and the Lublin Coal Basins in Poland. High-resolution seismic surveys were carried out in various geological and mining conditions. The objectives were to map commercial coal seams, locate coal-less zones and faults, and solve some problems associated with mining conditions, e.g., determining the height of caving roof zone. Theoretical modeling studies of seismic wave response for several geological models representing the coal-basin structures were used to address these problems. Results from these successful surveys helped improved designs of new mines and/or expand existing ones to provide more productive and safer coal mines.