A heterogeneous mixture of isotropic elements may appear homogeneous and anisotropic when the scale of its fabric is smaller than the seismic wavelengths that measure it (Backus, 1962). These fabrics can result from thin layering or from oriented microcracks or fractures. In many situations the anisotropy is quite complex, resulting, for example, from fractures in previously anisotropic media. Since these anisotropies combine, the effect of each must be separated to permit the study of either the fractures or the preexisting anisotropy.

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